Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Comparison of the Efficacy of Adding Clonidine, Chlorpromazine, Promethazine, and Midazolam to Morphine Pumps in Postoperative Pain Control of Addicted Patients

Farnad Imani 1 , Poupak Rahimzadeh 1 , * and Seyyed Hamid Reza Faiz 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Rasoul-Akram Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Rasoul-Akram Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine: July 1, 2011, 1 (1); 10-14
  • Published Online: July 1, 2011
  • Article Type: Case Report
  • Received: May 5, 2011
  • Revised: May 13, 2011
  • Accepted: May 17, 2011
  • DOI: 10.5812/kowsar.22287523.1336

To Cite: Imani F, Rahimzadeh P, Faiz S H R. Comparison of the Efficacy of Adding Clonidine, Chlorpromazine, Promethazine, and Midazolam to Morphine Pumps in Postoperative Pain Control of Addicted Patients, Anesth Pain Med. 2011 ; 1(1):10-14. doi: 10.5812/kowsar.22287523.1336.

Abstract
Copyright © 2011, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Mehta V, Langford RM. Acute pain management for opioid dependent patients. Anaesthesia. 2006; 61(3): 269-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Sykes J, Johnson R, Hanks GW. ABC of palliative care. Difficult pain problems. Bmj. 1997; 315(7112): 867-9[PubMed]
  • 3. Morgan JP. American opiophobia: customary underutilization of opioid analgesics. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse. 1985; 5(1-2): 163-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Marks RM, Sachar EJ. Undertreatment of medical inpatients with narcotic analgesics. Ann Intern Med. 1973; 78(2): 173-81[PubMed]
  • 5. Shine D, Demas P. Knowledge of medical students, residents, and attending physicians about opiate abuse. J Med Educ. 1984; 59(6): 501-7[PubMed]
  • 6. Cohen FL. Postsurgical pain relief: patients' status and nurses' medication choices. Pain. 1980; 9(2): 265-74[PubMed]
  • 7. Blum K. A commentary on neurotransmitter restoration as a common mode of treatment for alcohol, cocaine and opiate abuse. Integr Psychiatr. 1986; : 199-204
  • 8. Khan ZP, Ferguson CN, Jones RM. alpha-2 and imidazoline receptor agonists. Their pharmacology and therapeutic role. Anaesthesia. 1999; 54(2): 146-65[PubMed]
  • 9. Weaver MF, Schnoll SH. Opioid treatment of chronic pain in patients with addiction. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2002; 16(3): 5-26[PubMed]
  • 10. Lewis NL, Williams JE. Acute pain management in patients receiving opioids for chronic and cancer pain. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. 2005; 5(4): 127
  • 11. Sim MG, Hulse GK, Khong E. Acute pain and opioid seeking behaviour. Aust Fam Physician. 2004; 33(12): 1009-12[PubMed]
  • 12. Alford DP, Compton P, Samet JH. Acute pain management for patients receiving maintenance methadone or buprenorphine therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 144(2): 127-34[PubMed]
  • 13. Rapp SE, Ready LB, Nessly ML. Acute pain management in patients with prior opioid consumption: a case-controlled retrospective review. Pain. 1995; 61(2): 195-201[PubMed]
  • 14. Mitra S, Sinatra RS. Perioperative management of acute pain in the opioid-dependent patient. Anesthesiology. 2004; 101(1): 212-27[PubMed]
  • 15. Mystakidou K, Befon S, Liossi C, Vlachos L. Comparison of tropisetron and chlorpromazine combinations in the control of nausea and vomiting of patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1998; 15(3): 176-84[PubMed]
  • 16. Marinella MA. Diagnosis and management of hiccups in the patient with advanced cancer. J Support Oncol. 2009; 7(4): 122-7[PubMed]
  • 17. Richter PA, Burk MP. The potentiation of narcotic analgesics with phenothiazines. J Foot Surg. 1992; 31(4): 378-80[PubMed]
  • 18. Kelly AM, Ardagh M, Curry C, D'Antonio J, Zebic S. Intravenous chlorpromazine versus intramuscular sumatriptan for acute migraine. J Accid Emerg Med. 1997; 14(4): 209-11[PubMed]
  • 19. Koyuncuoglu H, Saydam B. The treatment of heroin addicts with dextromethorphan: a double-blind comparison of dextromethorphan with chlorpromazine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1990; 28(4): 147-52[PubMed]
  • 20. Steen RR, Meeks CM, Mc Gowan Je, Sutton HL, Healy RJ, Cryan JP. Narcotic addition; preliminary report on the effects of dimenhydrinate (dramamine) on withdrawal symptoms. N Y State J Med. 1954; 54(2): 267-8[PubMed]
  • 21. Tejwani GA, Rattan AK, Sribanditmongkol P, Sheu MJ, Zuniga J, McDonald JS. Inhibition of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence by a benzodiazepine receptor agonist midazolam in the rat. Anesth Analg. 1993; 76(5): 1052-60[PubMed]
  • 22. Iocolano CF. Perioperative pain management in the chemically dependent patient. J Perianesth Nurs. 2000; 15(5): 329-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Kuroki T, Nagao N, Nakahara T. Neuropharmacology of second-generation antipsychotic drugs: a validity of the serotonin-dopamine hypothesis. Prog Brain Res. 2008; 172: 199-212[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Laulin JP, Celerier E, Larcher A, Le Moal M, Simonnet G. Opiate tolerance to daily heroin administration: an apparent phenomenon associated with enhanced pain sensitivity. Neuroscience. 1999; 89(3): 631-6[PubMed]
  • 25. Joshi GP, White PF. 1998;
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments