Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Levobupivacaine for Spinal Anesthesia in Children: Cerebrospinal Fluid Aspiration Before the Injection Does not Affect the Spread or Duration of the Sensory Block

Merja Kokki 1 , 2 , * , Marja Heikkinen 3 , Elina Kumpulainen 2 , Aura Vähäoja 2 and Hannu Kokki 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
2 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
3 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Article information
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine: June 01, 2016, 6 (3); e33815
  • Published Online: April 27, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 2, 2015
  • Revised: March 5, 2016
  • Accepted: April 4, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/aapm.33815

To Cite: Kokki M, Heikkinen M, Kumpulainen E, Vähäoja A, Kokki H. Levobupivacaine for Spinal Anesthesia in Children: Cerebrospinal Fluid Aspiration Before the Injection Does not Affect the Spread or Duration of the Sensory Block, Anesth Pain Med. 2016 ; 6(3):e33815. doi: 10.5812/aapm.33815.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
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