Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Vertical Small-Needle Caudal Epidural Injection Technique

Liza Maniquis Smigel 1 , Kenneth Dean Reeves 2 , 3 , * , Howard Jeffrey Rosen 4 and David Patrick Rabago 5
Authors Information
1 Private Practice PM&R and Pain Management, Hawaii, USA
2 Private Practice PM&R and Pain Management, Roeland Park, Kansas, USA
3 Past Clinical Assistant/Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
4 Private Practice Anesthesiology and Pain Management Anaheim and Monterey, California, USA
5 Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, USA
Article information
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine: June 01, 2016, 6 (3); e35340
  • Published Online: May 10, 2016
  • Article Type: Brief Report
  • Received: December 14, 2015
  • Revised: February 13, 2016
  • Accepted: March 2, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/aapm.35340

To Cite: Maniquis Smigel L, Dean Reeves K, Jeffrey Rosen H, Patrick Rabago D. Vertical Small-Needle Caudal Epidural Injection Technique, Anesth Pain Med. 2016 ; 6(3):e35340. doi: 10.5812/aapm.35340.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
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