Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Evaluating Persistent Postoperative Pain in One Tertiary Hospital: Incidence, Quality of Life, Associated Factors, and Treatment

Luis Guimaraes-Pereira 1 , * , Ines Valdoleiros 1 , Pedro Reis 1 and Fernando Abelha 1 , 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Anesthesiology, Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, Oporto, Portugal
2 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, University of Porto, Oporto, Portugal
Article information
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine: May 01, 2016, 6 (2); e36461
  • Published Online: March 2, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: January 19, 2016
  • Revised: March 6, 2016
  • Accepted: March 9, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/aapm.36461

To Cite: Guimaraes-Pereira L, Valdoleiros I, Reis P, Abelha F. Evaluating Persistent Postoperative Pain in One Tertiary Hospital: Incidence, Quality of Life, Associated Factors, and Treatment, Anesth Pain Med. 2016 ; 6(2):e36461. doi: 10.5812/aapm.36461.

Copyright © 2016, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Kehlet H, Edwards RR, Buvanendran A. Persistent postoperative pain: Pathogenic mechanisms and preventive strategies. 2012;
  • 2. Crombie IK, Davies HT, Macrae WA. Cut and thrust: antecedent surgery and trauma among patients attending a chronic pain clinic. Pain. 1998; 76(1-2): 167-71[PubMed]
  • 3. Jenkins JT, O'Dwyer PJ. Inguinal hernias. BMJ. 2008; 336(7638): 269-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Blyth FM, March LM, Cousins MJ. Chronic pain-related disability and use of analgesia and health services in a Sydney community. Med J Aust. 2003; 179(2): 84-7[PubMed]
  • 5. Johansen A, Romundstad L, Nielsen CS, Schirmer H, Stubhaug A. Persistent postsurgical pain in a general population: prevalence and predictors in the Tromso study. Pain. 2012; 153(7): 1390-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Azevedo LF, Costa-Pereira A, Mendonca L, Dias CC, Castro-Lopes JM. Epidemiology of chronic pain: a population-based nationwide study on its prevalence, characteristics and associated disability in Portugal. J Pain. 2012; 13(8): 773-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Strategic plan for prevention and control of pain 2013;
  • 8. Becker N, Bondegaard Thomsen A, Olsen AK, Sjogren P, Bech P, Eriksen J. Pain epidemiology and health related quality of life in chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to a Danish multidisciplinary pain center. Pain. 1997; 73(3): 393-400[PubMed]
  • 9. Kemler MA, de Vet HC. Health-related quality of life in chronic refractory reflex sympathetic dystrophy (complex regional pain syndrome type I). J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000; 20(1): 68-76[PubMed]
  • 10. Azevedo LF, Pereira AC, Dias C, Agualusa L, Lemos L, Romao J. Translation, Adaptation and Cultural Multicenter Validation Instrument for Screening and Chronic Pain Impact Assessment. 2007;
  • 11. Cleeland CS, Ryan KM. Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1994; 23(2): 129-38[PubMed]
  • 12. Keller S, Bann CM, Dodd SL, Schein J, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS. Validity of the brief pain inventory for use in documenting the outcomes of patients with noncancer pain. Clin J Pain. 2004; 20(5): 309-18[PubMed]
  • 13. Pinto PR, McIntyre T, Nogueira-Silva C, Almeida A, Araujo-Soares V. Risk factors for persistent postsurgical pain in women undergoing hysterectomy due to benign causes: a prospective predictive study. J Pain. 2012; 13(11): 1045-57[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Melzack R. The short-form McGill pain questionnaire. Pain. 1987; 30(2): 191-7[DOI]
  • 15. Brooks R, Rabin R, De Charro F. The measurement and valuation of health status using EQ-5D: a European perspective: evidence from the EuroQol BIOMED Research Programme. 2013;
  • 16. Ferreira PL, Ferreira LN, Pereira LN. [Contribution for the validation of the Portuguese version of EQ-5D]. Acta Med Port. 2013; 26(6): 664-75[PubMed]
  • 17. Searle RD, Simpson KH. Chronic post-surgical pain. Continu Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. 2010; 10(1): 12-4[DOI]
  • 18. Bruehl S, Burns JW, Gupta R, Buvanendran A, Chont M, Kinner E, et al. Endogenous opioid function mediates the association between laboratory-evoked pain sensitivity and morphine analgesic responses. Pain. 2013; 154(9): 1856-64[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Perkins FM, Kehlet H. Chronic pain as an outcome of surgery. A review of predictive factors. Anesthesiology. 2000; 93(4): 1123-33[PubMed]
  • 20. Jess P, Jess T, Beck H, Bech P. Neuroticism in relation to recovery and persisting pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1998; 33(5): 550-3[PubMed]
  • 21. Stiff G, Rhodes M, Kelly A, Telford K, Armstrong CP, Rees BI. Long-term pain: less common after laparoscopic than open cholecystectomy. Br J Surg. 1994; 81(9): 1368-70[PubMed]
  • 22. Brander VA, Stulberg SD, Adams AD, Harden RN, Bruehl S, Stanos SP, et al. Predicting total knee replacement pain: a prospective, observational study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003; (416): 27-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Puolakka PA, Rorarius MG, Roviola M, Puolakka TJ, Nordhausen K, Lindgren L. Persistent pain following knee arthroplasty. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010; 27(5): 455-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Nikolajsen L, Brandsborg B, Lucht U, Jensen TS, Kehlet H. Chronic pain following total hip arthroplasty: a nationwide questionnaire study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006; 50(4): 495-500[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Singh JA, Lewallen D. Predictors of pain and use of pain medications following primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA): 5,707 THAs at 2-years and 3,289 THAs at 5-years. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010; 11: 90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Kehlet H, Jensen TS, Woolf CJ. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet. 2006; 367(9522): 1618-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Macrae WA. Chronic post-surgical pain: 10 years on. Br J Anaesth. 2008; 101(1): 77-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Wylde V, Hewlett S, Learmonth ID, Dieppe P. Persistent pain after joint replacement: prevalence, sensory qualities, and postoperative determinants. Pain. 2011; 152(3): 566-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Schnabel A, Pogatzki-Zahn E. [Predictors of chronic pain following surgery. What do we know?]. Schmerz. 2010; 24(5): 517-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Miladinia M, Baraz S, Shariati A, Malehi A, Amadzadeh A. Relationship Between Chronic Pain and Quality of Life in Patients With Acute Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy. Jundishapur J Chron Dis Care. 2015; 4(3)
  • 31. Lavand’homme P. The progression from acute to chronic pain. Curr Opinion Anaesthesiol. 2011; 24(5): 545-50[DOI]
  • 32. Katz J, Seltzer Z. Transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain: risk factors and protective factors. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009; 9(5): 723-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Poobalan AS, Bruce J, King PM, Chambers WA, Krukowski ZH, Smith WC. Chronic pain and quality of life following open inguinal hernia repair. Br J Surg. 2001; 88(8): 1122-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Macdonald L, Bruce J, Scott NW, Smith WC, Chambers WA. Long-term follow-up of breast cancer survivors with post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Br J Cancer. 2005; 92(2): 225-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Campbell LC, Clauw DJ, Keefe FJ. Persistent pain and depression: a biopsychosocial perspective. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54(3): 399-409[PubMed]
  • 36. Banks SM, Kerns RD. Explaining high rates of depression in chronic pain: A diathesis-stress framework. Psychol Bull. 1996; 119(1): 95-110[DOI]
  • 37. Fishbain DA, Cutler R, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. Chronic pain-associated depression: antecedent or consequence of chronic pain? A review. Clin J Pain. 1997; 13(2): 116-37[PubMed]
  • 38. Hinrichs-Rocker A, Schulz K, Jarvinen I, Lefering R, Simanski C, Neugebauer EA. Psychosocial predictors and correlates for chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) - a systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2009; 13(7): 719-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Azevedo LF, Costa-Pereira A, Mendonca L, Dias CC, Castro-Lopes JM. A population-based study on chronic pain and the use of opioids in Portugal. Pain. 2013; 154(12): 2844-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Azevedo LF, Costa-Pereira A, Mendonca L, Dias CC, Castro-Lopes JM. Chronic pain and health services utilization: is there overuse of diagnostic tests and inequalities in nonpharmacologic treatment methods utilization? Med Care. 2013; 51(10): 859-69[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Figueiredo R, Sousa M, Miguel C, Simoes E. [Analgesic prescription habits in a population of patients with chronic rheumatic disease]. Acta Med Port. 2011; 24(1): 53-8[PubMed]
  • 42. Beubler E, Eisenberg E, Castro-Lopes J, Rhodin A. Prescribing policies of opioids for chronic pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2007; 21(2): 53-5[PubMed]
  • 43. Kalso E. IV. Persistent post-surgery pain: research agenda for mechanisms, prevention, and treatment. Br J Anaesth. 2013; 111(1): 9-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Ikemoto K, Yamagata Y, Ikemoto T, Kawai T, Aono S, Arai YC. Telephone Consultation Partially Based on a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Decreases Pain and Improves Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Pain. Anesth Pain Med. 2015; 5(6)[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments